Cocoa Cocoa

🍀History of use Cacao residues on pottery in suggest that the plant was consumed by humans as early as 5,000 years ago. Epidemiological studies show an inverse association between the consumption of cocoa and the risk of cardiovascular disease. " Documents have been discovered indicating that chocolate was used naturopathically and prescribed to patients by some physicians for a variety of diseases during the 18th and 19th century in America, including cholera, consumption tuberculosis , scarlet fever, smallpox, typhus, and yellow fever. Supplementation of the pure flavoinoids epicatechin and quercetin affects some biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in pre hypertensive adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Cocoa powder contains about 1. In a third study, just 25 g of semisweet chocolate bits containing 200 mg flavanols and procyanidins produced a reduction in platelet-related hemostasis in healthy people. 1 ounces 19—30 grams of chocolate per day, but the effect was not seen when consuming higher amounts ,. However, there are some conflicting results in the scientific evidence, so more research is needed. The tree was likely domesticated in the upper Amazon region and then spread northward. A study using functional magnetic imaging in healthy young people found that ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa was associated with increased cerebral blood flow suggesting that cocoa may play a role in the treatment of cerebral impairment, including dementia and stroke. Cocoa contains many compounds that have antibacterial, anti-enzymatic and immune-stimulating properties that may contribute to its oral health effects. The mean systolic blood pressure in the highest tertile of cocoa intake was 3. Summary The flavanols in cocoa have been shown to have promising anti-cancer properties in test-tube and animal studies, but data from human trials is lacking. Phenolic flavonoids, which are present in red wine and chocolate, may have a role in precipitating migraines. Further studies characterizing the polyphenol content of cocoa products and method of measurement are needed. Summary Cocoa can improve blood flow and reduce cholesterol. The characteristically bitter taste of cocoa is generated by the reaction of diketopiperazines with theobromine during roasting. The use of cocoa to treat or prevent magnesium deficiency in humans has not been explored. The fruits are large and football shaped, with quarter-sized seeds referred to as cocoa beans. Adverse Reactions Caffeine from the ingestion of large amounts of chocolate, along with 2 to 4 caffeinated beverages, was correlated with the appearance of tics in 2 children. Eating up to one serving of chocolate per day may reduce your risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter are often mixed with chocolate liquor ground cacao seeds , sugar, milk, and other flavors. Mood disorders Ingredients in chocolate with potential psychoactive properties have been identified, including the biogenic stimulant amines caffeine, theobromine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine; however, their concentrations are likely to be too low to have an effect. They have been linked to numerous health benefits, including reduced inflammation, better blood flow, lower blood pressure and and blood sugar levels. , A standard chocolate bar 40 to 50 g contains theobromine 86 to 240 mg and caffeine 9 to 31 mg. At that time, physicians also stated that all that was necessary for breakfast was chocolate, because it yielded good nourishment for the body. Additionally, the effect was greater in people who already had high blood pressure than those without it and in older people compared to younger people. Yet, many of them did not differentiate between the type of chocolate consumed — white and milk chocolate do not have the same benefits as dark ,. Platelet reactivity In the previous study, 2 hours after ingestion of dark chocolate, the shear stress-dependent platelet function was also reduced. Cocoa, both in its powdered form and in the form of dark chocolate, may be able to help lower blood pressure. A similar result also has been shown with cocaine craving. An in vitro study showed that breast cancer cells are selectively susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of cocoa-derived pentameric procyanidin and suggest that inhibition of cellular proliferation by this compound is associated with the sire-specific dephosphorylation or down-regulation of several cell cycle regulatory proteins. Fun ways to add cocoa to your diet include:• The broken kernels, or nibs, were roasted in earthen pots and then ground to a paste in a concave stone, called a metate, over a small fire. Scientific Family• Cocoa butter, also known as theobroma oil, may have a faint chocolate odor that can be removed following further purification. Cocoa has the highest concentration of flavanols out of all foods per weight and can significantly contribute to their amount in your diet. The quality of the data in the update was downgraded from high to moderate due to unexplained heterogeneity among the trials. 1 mm Hg lower compared with the lowest tertile; 314 men died, 152 of cardiovascular diseases. Near Landmarks• Summary Cocoa and dark chocolate may reduce your risk of diabetes and maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Cocoa is rich in polyphenols that have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. Check out on selecting high-quality dark chocolate. Some studies have shown that a higher intake of flavanols, including those from cocoa, can result in a lower risk of type 2 diabetes ,. Somewhat paradoxically, cocoa intake, even in the form of chocolate, may help you control your weight. However, other studies have found that chocolate consumption increases weight. White chocolate had no effect on flow-mediated dilation. However, this number has been deemed too low by other researchers, who claim higher amounts of flavanols are required to see benefits ,. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. Adding cocoa can give a delicious chocolate taste to your dishes. It is also used by confectioners as coating for candy bars and boxed or bulk chocolates, by bakery product manufacturers and bakers as coating for many types of and , and by companies as coating for frozen novelties. Sprinkle over fruit: Cocoa is particularly nice sprinkled over bananas or strawberries. However, human trials are needed before it can be recommended as a treatment. Resveratrol in medicinal chemistry: a critical review of its pharmacokinetics, drug-delivery, and membrane interactions. Overall, it appears that cocoa and cocoa-rich products may be helpful in achieving or maintaining weight, but further studies are needed. Theoretically, the caffeine in cocoa might inhibit dipyridamole-induced vasodilation. The Mayan word cacao entered scientific nomenclature in 1753, and the words theo "god" and broma "nectar" or "food" are Latinized Greek. No effect was seen with white chocolate. Theobromine is similar to and may help with persistent coughing. Polyphenols are naturally occurring antioxidants found in foods like fruits, vegetables, tea, chocolate and. Cocoa is one of the richest sources of polyphenols. , In one study, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between cocoa intake and blood pressure, as well as a 15-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality; the median cocoa intake among users was 2. Cacao is often used to describe the raw material, while cocoa is used to describe the processed products. However, processing and heating cocoa can cause it to lose its beneficial properties. Endothelial and vascular function Populations that consume cocoa routinely excrete more nitric oxide NO metabolites than genetically similar groups with less consumption. , , , Two of these studies provide data specific to the effects of cocoa. In addition to lowering blood pressure, it appears that cocoa has other properties that may reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke , ,. Summary Cocoa extract has demonstrated some anti-asthmatic properties in animal studies. Flavanols in fruits, vegetables and other foods have attracted a great deal of interest due to their , low toxicity and few adverse side effects. A nonlinear dose response was observed with low to moderate chocolate consumption, but not high dose, associated with a reduced risk of heart failure HR, 0. In another study, a half-maximal, flow-mediated dilation 2 hours after consumption was achieved with 616 mg total flavanols. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio HR for CHD was 0. During the 20th century especially after the 1930s , the consumption of chocolate shifted from medicinal to confectionery. — Each lotion is made with vitamin E, which is chock-full of antioxidants to help even your skin tone, as well as cocoa and shea butters to hydrate your skin. However, processing cocoa into chocolate or other products can substantially decrease the polyphenol content. One review analyzed 35 experiments that provided patients with 0. Adverse Reactions Children consuming large amounts of chocolate and caffeinated beverages may exhibit tics or restlessness. In the 1600s, it was argued that "chocolate" should be considered a medicine because it changed a patient's health. The exact amount of cocoa you should include in your diet to achieve health benefits is not clear. Food and pharmaceutical additives Cocoa products are used extensively in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Theophylline helps your lungs dilate, your airways relax and decreases inflammation. Recent Examples on the Web Place milk, cocoa powder and sugar in a small saucepan. No other biomarkers were significantly affected by epicatechin. Test-tube studies on components of cocoa have found that they have antioxidant effects, protect cells against damage from reactive molecules, fight inflammation, inhibit cell growth, induce cancer cell death and help prevent the spread of cancer cells ,. Sterculiaceae Botany The cocoa tree grows to heights exceeding 8 m. Flavanol-rich cocoa improves the level of nitric oxide in your blood, which relaxes and dilates your arteries and blood vessels and improves blood flow ,. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. Numerous intervention trials have shown that consumption of flavanol-containing cocoa products can improve endothelial function, , , , vascular function, , and insulin sensitivity; as well as attenuate platelet reactivity, , , , , and reduce blood pressure. Additionally, a review of human studies showed that eating flavanol-rich dark chocolate or cocoa can reduce , control and reduce inflammation in diabetic and nondiabetic people. The paste, formed into small cakes, was cooled and hardened on shiny leaves placed under a tree. In the Rules for Regulating Salem Hospital published in 1773, chocolate was listed under "patient's diet. Flavanols can cross the blood-brain barrier and are involved in the biochemical pathways that produce neurons and important molecules for the function of your brain. Cortez described the preparation and use of a beverage called chocalatl, made of the seeds of T. Popular Neighborhoods• Though overconsumption of chocolate is certainly not good for blood sugar control, cocoa does, in fact, have some anti-diabetic effects. 7 mm Hg lower, and the mean diastolic blood pressure was 2. The following drugs may increase the effects of caffeine in cocoa because they decrease the metabolism or clearance of caffeine: cimetidine disulfiram estrogens fluconazole mexiletine oral contraceptives and quinolone antibiotics. , , In animals, cocoa butter has been shown to be comedogenic; however, this has not been proven in humans. Specially treated cocoa powder, called alkalinized cocoa has improved color, flavor, and dispersability compared with unalkalinized powder. — Bloom cocoa in hot water to bring out the chocolate flavor in a brownie recipe. These properties have been linked to a lower risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke , , ,. 22257059 Disclaimer This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. Insulin sensitivity In a crossover study, 15 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume 100 g of dark chocolate or 90 g of white chocolate for 15 days after a 7-day, cocoa-free, run-in phase. Animal studies using a cocoa-rich diet or cocoa extracts have seen positive results in reducing breast, pancreatic, prostate, liver and colon cancer, as well as leukemia. Cocoa has captivated the world for thousands of years and is a big part of modern cuisine in the form of chocolate. Recipes using cacao were recorded in 15th century Mayan codices. The studies included 4 cohorts and 1 post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial; a total of 106,109 participants were enrolled and follow-up ranged from 9 to 14 years. Magnesium deficiency In rats, the magnesium contained in cocoa has been shown to prevent and correct chronic magnesium deficiency. Consumption of foods rich in flavanols are also associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, suggesting that this specific group of flavonoids may have potent cardioprotective qualities. The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating to the 16th century. Too bitter for European taste, the mixture was sweetened with when introduced to the Spanish court. In a study evaluating the effect of cocoa ingestion on modulated human platelet activation and primary hemostasis, cocoa consumption suppressed ADP- or epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation and platelet microparticle formation, and had an aspirin-like effect on primary hemostasis. Use of large amounts of cocoa with monoamine oxidase inhibitors may precipitate a hypertensive crisis because of cocoa's tyramine content. Cocoa Scientific Name s : Theobroma cacao L. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. While the results of these early studies are promising, more research on the effect of cocoa on mood and depression is needed before more definite conclusions can be drawn. Granola bars: Add cocoa to your favorite granola bar mixture to bump up the health benefits and enrich the flavor. 4—105 grams of cocoa products, or roughly 30—1,218 mg of flavanols. — But the usual appearances at Miller Park by Mrs. The European Food Safety Authority recommends 0. , Dosing No specific dosing recommendations can be made. Nevertheless, these results combined with the more concrete positive effects on heart health indicate cocoa polyphenols may have a positive impact on both preventing and controlling diabetes, though more research is required. The ripe seed pods are cut from the trees and split open with machetes. A high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms has also been recorded in workers exposed to cocoa. Theobromine, when ingested in the form of a large chocolate bar, did not cause any acute hemodynamic or electrophysiologic cardiac changes in young, healthy adults. However, because polyphenols can be destroyed during processing, some products may actually have a low polyphenol content. Cancer Data suggest that flavonoid-rich food contributes to cancer prevention. Cocoa is also a dietary source of resveratrol. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. — You may be reminded of mole by this sauce that includes cocoa powder, lime zest, orange juice and ground allspice. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes obstruction and inflammation of the airways and can be life-threatening ,. cacao Common Name s : Cacao, Cocoa by Drugs. , Cocoa contains the amines and alkaloids theobromine 0. These polymers are known as procyanidins. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. Summary Cocoa may exert some positive effects on mood and symptoms of depression by reducing stress levels and improving calmness, contentment and overall psychological well-being. In cocoa, the polyphenols of particular interest are flavanols, a subclass of flavonoids, which are in turn a subclass of polyphenols. Cocoa may be allergenic and has caused occupational asthma in confectionery factory workers. ", , Uses and Pharmacology Cocoa has been reported to be a source of natural antioxidants the free radical scavengers that preserve cell membranes, protect DNA, prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol that leads to atherosclerosis, and prevent plaque formation in arterial walls. As a result, new products will need to be developed to experience the oral health benefits of cocoa. A study that followed changes in brain activity related to eating chocolate demonstrated that one area of the brain is involved when there is motivation or craving to eat chocolate, while another area is involved when the desire to eat chocolate is decreased or becomes unpleasant. , , Dark chocolate and cocoa inhibit LDL oxidation and increase high-density lipoprotein HDL -cholesterol concentrations. From the processed cocoa bean comes the fluid paste, or liquor, from which cocoa powder and are made. — Zager said the campaign had tents, heaters, generators, hot cocoa, and handwarmers available for guests. , Interactions None well documented. In Aztec society, cocoa beans were used to pay annual taxes to the Emperor. Smoothies: Cocoa can be added to your favorite healthy smoothie recipe to give it a richer, chocolatey taste. David Monniaux The cocoa is the of the cacao tree Theobroma cacao , a tropical to the equatorial regions of the Americas. Additionally, flavanols influence the production of nitric oxide, which relaxes the muscles of your blood vessels, improving blood flow and blood supply to your brain ,. This indicator of higher NO production is associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Further studies characterizing the polyphenol content of cocoa products and method of measurement are needed. Cocoa powder is made by crushing cocoa beans and removing the fat or cocoa butter. Health benefits of cocoa include decreased inflammation, improved heart and brain health, blood sugar and weight control and healthy teeth and skin. By 1765 chocolate manufacture had begun in the at Dorchester, in , using cocoa beans from the. , Although, the relatively high stearic acid content in cocoa products was once purported to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease CHD , it is no longer considered to play a role in the reduction of CHD risk. This product may adversely interact with certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary supplements. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. 4 ounces 10 grams of high-flavanol chocolate in your diet. Toxicology Cocoa is nontoxic when ingested in typical confectionery amounts. Additionally, the updated meta-analysis conducted by the same authors that included these data showed similar results. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. However, the evidence for cocoa specifically is conflicting, as some trials have found no benefit and some have even noticed an increased risk , ,. The proliferation of flavoured, solid, and coated chocolate foods rapidly followed. com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. The N-acylethanolamines found in chocolate and cocoa powder may act indirectly by inhibiting breakdown of endogenously produced anadamine, prolonging a "natural high. It also promotes healthy skin by protecting it from sunlight and improving circulation, the skin surface and hydration. Popular Amenities• Clinical data Multiple epidemiological studies have found an inverse association between the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods and the risk of cardiovascular disease. 4 ounces 10 grams of high-flavanol dark chocolate containing at least 200 mg of flavanols per day to achieve heart health benefits. However, more research is needed. In another study 34,489 cardiovascular disease-free postmenopausal women were followed for 16 years. History The Olmecs, one of the first civilizations of the Americas 1500 BC to 400 BC are credited with the first use of cocoa. , Most studies have used dark chocolate in order to avoid a possible milk interference; however, one study using milk chocolate found positive effects on blood pressure, plasma cholesterol, and markers of oxidative stress in young men who exercised. The antioxidant activity of cocoa has been attributed to the procyanidins and their monomeric precursors, epicatechin and catechin, which inhibit oxidation of LDL. However, there are no significant human studies, and the majority of cocoa products consumed by humans also. The flavanols in cocoa are thought to levels in the blood, which can enhance the function of your blood vessels and reduce blood pressure ,. When compared with that of the lowest tertile, the adjusted relative risk for men in the highest tertile was 0. After multivariate analysis, a borderline inverse relationship between chocolate intake and cardiovascular disease mortality was observed. Adverse effects more common in the flavanol-rich intervention groups included GI complaints and distaste of the product. No association was found in the dose-response meta-analysis, the stratified analysis by gender, or the categorical analysis between the highest vs the lowest category of chocolate consumed. Summary Cocoa is rich in polyphenols, which have significant health benefits, including reduced inflammation and improved cholesterol levels. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index was also higher after dark chocolate ingestion. Cocoa may increase the risk of toxicity or adverse reactions of clozapine because caffeine inhibits clozapine metabolism. However, no significant differences were observed in glucose and insulin responses with administration of a 100 g flavanol-rich dark chocolate bar for 3 days versus a white chocolate bar with trace polyphenols in 12 healthy volunteers in a randomized, blind, crossover trial. This effect was first noted in the cocoa-drinking island people of Central America, who had much lower blood pressure than their non-cocoa-drinking mainland relatives. Concomitant use of phenylpropanolamine and cocoa may cause an additive increase in blood pressure because of the caffeine content. Results of another study demonstrated that daily consumption of a high-flavanol cocoa drink led to a sustained reversal of endothelial dysfunction, reaching a plateau level of improved flow-mediated dilation after 5 days. Abrupt withdrawal of caffeine-containing cocoa may increase serum lithium levels. Patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome who experience reflux esophageal symptoms should eliminate foods that decrease lower esophageal sphincter pressure, such as chocolate and cocoa-containing products, from their diets. This edible inhaler, the Chocuhaler, produced a clinical effect when used to administer albuterol. Subgroup analysis revealed that the reduction was significant only when compared to flavanol-free controls and not low-flavanol controls. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. Cocoa contains more than 300 volatile compounds, the most important flavor components being aliphatic esters, polyphenols, aromatic carbonyls, and theobromine which also prevent rancidity of the fat. 5 for cardiovascular mortality and 0. However, the results of these studies cannot be extrapolated to patients with any condition s or disease s , nor to the effects of chronic chocolate consumption. Cognitive performance Free radical damage has been implicated as a cause of cognitive decline and memory loss in aging. 5 grams of high-flavanol cocoa powder or 0. — These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'cocoa. Chocolate is sold directly to the consumer as solid bars of eating chocolate, as packaged cocoa, and as baking chocolate. So while cocoa is a great source of polyphenols, not all products containing cocoa will provide the same benefits. Popular Restaurant Categories• One study concluded that epicatechin content was likely to be the main factor in cocoa's association with beneficial health effects. , The likely mechanisms are antioxidant activity; improvement in endothelial function, vascular function, and insulin sensitivity; as well as attenuation of platelet reactivity and reduction in blood pressure. It found that cocoa produced a small but significant reduction of 2 mmHg in blood pressure. One study on chocolate consumption and stress levels in pregnant women found that more frequent intake of chocolate was associated with reduced stress and improved mood in babies. Cocoa containing between 30—1,218 mg of flavanols can reduce blood pressure by an average of 2 mmHg. The pharmacologically active ingredients of cocoa seeds include amines, alkaloids, fatty acids, polyphenols including flavonoids , tyramine, magnesium, phenylethylamine, and N-acylethanolamines. Several studies have found that polyphenols, such as those in cocoa, may reduce your risk of neurodegenerative diseases by and blood flow. Neves AR, Lucio M, Lima JL, Reis S. Although the sample sizes were large, limitations included no discernment between milk or dark chocolate, confounders associated with observational study design, and assessment of chocolate consumption only at baseline. No significant differences were observed in glucose and insulin responses. The Aztec beverage was made from sun-dried shelled , probably fermented in their pods. — Stir in the the water, beer, crushed tomatoes, molasses and cocoa powder. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower after dark chocolate ingestion. However, much more research is needed. , Cocoa butter suppositories have been used since the early 1900s to relieve hemorrhoids, and the ointment has been applied to the breasts of nursing women. Dower JI, Geleijnse JM, Gijsbers L, Schalkwijk C, Kromhout D, Hollman PC. Today, cocoa is most famous for its role in chocolate production. Because the study population was not hypertensive, the results are notable. Near Landmarks• Clinical Overview Use Cocoa solid, cocoa butter, and chocolate are all rich sources of antioxidants. Use of chocolate as an inhaler has been studied. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. The active group had lower P-selectin expression and lower ADP-induced aggregation and collagen-induced aggregation than did the placebo group. Studies in humans have shown that flavanol-rich diets are associated with a decrease in cancer risk. In a study of smokers, the ingestion of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink increased the circulating pool of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Despite these promising results, there are inconsistencies in the research with some studies finding only a limited effect, slightly worse control of diabetes or no effect at all , ,. Furthermore, another study discovered that drinking high-polyphenol cocoa improved calmness and contentment. The polyphenols in chocolate come from the cocoa liquor; therefore, the polyphenol content is highest in cocoa powder, followed by dark chocolate, then milk chocolate, with none in white chocolate. These compounds may not exert their effect by binding with the tetrahydrocannabinol receptors, but by inhibiting breakdown of endogenously produced anandamine, thus prolonging a "natural high. In 1657 a Frenchman opened a shop, selling solid chocolate to be made into the beverage, and chocolate houses, selling the hot beverage, soon appeared throughout. Here are 11 health and nutrition benefits of cocoa powder. Near Hotels• Caffeine content should be restricted during pregnancy. Cocoa bean processing Harvesting of cocoa beans can proceed all year, but the bulk of the crop is gathered in two flush periods occurring from October to February and from May to. Additionally, a weight loss study using low-carbohydrate diets found that a group given 42 grams or about 1. However, more research is needed on this topic to determine exactly what type and how much cocoa is ideal. Dosing No specific dosing recommendations can be made. However, one randomized trial demonstrated that supplementation of chocolate with calcium 0. Natural cocoa butter and cocoa beans.。

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